displayName: PACKAGE LABEL.PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL
FDA Article Code: 51945-4
Each tablet contains: Triamterene USP 37.5, Hydrochlorothiazide USP 25mg
Dosage: See package insert
Store between 68-77 degrees F.
Protect from moisture. Store in a tight, light resistant container. Keep out of the reach of children.
Mfg by: Apotex Inc. Toronto, Ontario, Canada M9L 1T9
Mfg. for: Apotex Corp., Weston, FL 33326 Lot#
Repackaged by: Northwind Pharmaceuticals, Indianapolis, IN 46256
displayName: CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34090-1
Triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic, antihypertensive drug product, principally due to its hydrochlorothiazide component; the triamterene component reduces the excessive potassium loss which may occur with hydrochlorothiazide use.
Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic and antihypertensive agent. It blocks the renal tubular absorption of sodium and chloride ions. This natriuresis and diuresis is accompanied by a secondary loss of potassium and bicarbonate. Onset of hydrochlorothiazide’s diuretic effect occurs within 2 hours and the peak action takes place in 4 hours. Diuretic activity persists for approximately 6 to 12 hours.
The exact mechanism of hydrochlorothiazide’s antihypertensive action is not known although it may relate to the excretion and redistribution of body sodium. Hydrochlorothiazide does not affect normal blood pressure.
Following oral administration, peak hydrochlorothiazide plasma levels are attained in approximately 2 hours. It is excreted rapidly and unchanged in the urine.
Well controlled studies have demonstrated that doses of hydrochlorothiazide as low as 25 mg given once daily are effective in treating hypertension, but the dose-response has not been clearly established.
Triamterene is a potassium-conserving (antikaliuretic) diuretic with relatively weak natriuretic properties. It exerts its diuretic effect on the distal renal tubule to inhibit the reabsorption of sodium in exchange for potassium and hydrogen. With this action, triamterene increases sodium excretion and reduces the excessive loss of potassium and hydrogen associated with hydrochlorothiazide. Triamterene is not a competitive antagonist of the mineralocorticoids and its potassium-conserving effect is observed in patients with Addison’s disease, i.e., without aldosterone. Triamterene’s onset and duration of activity is similar to hydrochlorothiazide. No predictable antihypertensive effect has been demonstrated with triamterene.
Triamterene is rapidly absorbed following oral administration. Peak plasma levels are achieved within one hour after dosing. Triamterene is primarily metabolized to the sulfate conjugate of hydroxytriamterene. Both the plasma and urine levels of this metabolite greatly exceed triamterene levels.
The amount of triamterene added to 50 mg of hydrochlorothiazide in triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide tablets was determined from steady-state dose-response evaluations in which various doses of liquid preparations of triamterene were administered to hypertensive persons who developed hypokalemia with hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg given once daily). Single daily doses of 75 mg triamterene resulted in greater increases in serum potassium than lower doses (25 mg and 50 mg), while doses greater than 75 mg of triamterene resulted in no additional elevations in serum potassium levels. The amount of triamterene added to the 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide in triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide tablets was also determined from steady-state dose-response evaluations in which various doses of liquid preparations of triamterene were administered to hypertensive persons who developed hypokalemia with hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg given once daily). Single daily doses of 37.5 mg triamterene resulted in greater increases in serum potassium than a lower dose (25 mg), while doses greater than 37.5 mg of triamterene, i.e., 75 mg and 100 mg, resulted in no additional elevations in serum potassium levels. The dose-response relationship of triamterene was also evaluated in patients rendered hypokalemic by hydrochlorothiazide given 25 mg twice daily. Triamterene given twice daily increased serum potassium levels in a dose-related fashion. However, the combination of triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide given twice daily also appeared to produce an increased frequency of elevation in serum BUN and creatinine levels. The largest increases in serum potassium, BUN and creatinine in this study were observed with 50 mg of triamterene given twice daily, the largest dose tested. Ordinarily, triamterene does not entirely compensate for the kaliuretic effect of hydrochlorothiazide and some patients may remain hypokalemic while receiving triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide. In some individuals, however, it may induce hyperkalemia .
The triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide components of this product are well absorbed and are bioequivalent to liquid preparations of the individual components administered orally. Food does not influence the absorption of triamterene or hydrochlorothiazide from Apotex’s triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide 37.5 mg/25 mg or 75 mg/50 mg tablets. The hydrochlorothiazide component of triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide tablets is bioequivalent to single entity hydrochlorothiazide tablet formulations.
displayName: DESCRIPTION SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34089-3
Triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide combines triamterene, a potassium-conserving diuretic, with the natriuretic agent, hydrochlorothiazide.
Each Triamterene and Hydrochlorothiazide 37.5 mg/25 mg Tablet, USP contains 37.5 mg of Triamterene, USP and 25 mg of Hydrochlorothiazide, USP.
Each Triamterene and Hydrochlorothiazide 75 mg/50 mg Tablet, USP contains 75 mg of Triamterene, USP and 50 mg of Hydrochlorothiazide, USP.
Triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide tablets for oral administration contains the following inactive ingredients: lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and sodium starch glycolate. In addition, the 37.5 mg/25 mg tablets contain D&C Yellow No.10 Aluminum Lake and FD&C Blue No.1 Aluminum Lake.
Triamterene is 2,4,7-triamino-6-phenylpteridine. Triamterene is practically insoluble in water, benzene, chloroform, ether and dilute alkali hydroxides. It is soluble in formic acid and sparingly soluble in methoxyethanol. Triamterene is very slightly soluble in acetic acid, alcohol and dilute mineral acids.
displayName: WARNINGS SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34071-1
HyperkalemiaAbnormal elevation of serum potassium levels (greater than or equal to 5.5 mEq/liter) can occur with all potassium-conserving diuretic combinations, including triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide. Hyperkalemia is more likely to occur in patients with renal impairment, diabetes (even without evidence of renal impairment), or elderly or severely ill patients. Since uncorrected hyperkalemia may be fatal, serum potassium levels must be monitored at frequent intervals especially in patients first receiving triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide, when dosages are changed or with any illness that may influence renal function.
If hyperkalemia is suspected, (warning signs include paresthesias, muscular weakness, fatigue, flaccid paralysis of the extremities, bradycardia and shock) an electrocardiogram (ECG) should be obtained. However, it is important to monitor serum potassium levels because mild hyperkalemia may not be associated with ECG changes.
If hyperkalemia is present, triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide should be discontinued immediately and a thiazide alone should be substituted. If the serum potassium exceeds 6.5 mEq/liter, more vigorous therapy is required. The clinical situation dictates the procedures to be employed. These include the intravenous administration of calcium chloride solution, sodium bicarbonate solution and/or the oral or parenteral administration of glucose with a rapid-acting insulin preparation. Cationic exchange resins such as sodium polystyrene sulfonate may be orally or rectally administered. Persistent hyperkalemia may require dialysis.
The development of hyperkalemia associated with potassium-sparing diuretics is accentuated in the presence of renal impairment . Patients with mild renal functional impairment should not receive this drug without frequent and continuing monitoring of serum electrolytes. Cumulative drug effects may be observed in patients with impaired renal function. The renal clearances of hydrochlorothiazide and the pharmacologically active metabolite of triamterene, the sulfate ester of hydroxytriamterene, have been shown to be reduced and the plasma levels increased following triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide administration to elderly patients and patients with impaired renal function.
Hyperkalemia has been reported in diabetic patients with the use of potassium-conserving agents even in the absence of apparent renal impairment. Accordingly, triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide should be avoided in diabetic patients. If it is employed, serum electrolytes must be frequently monitored.
Because of the potassium-sparing properties of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide should be used cautiously, if at all, with these agents.
Metabolic or Respiratory Acidosis
Potassium-conserving therapy should also be avoided in severely ill patients in whom respiratory or metabolic acidosis may occur. Acidosis may be associated with rapid elevations in serum potassium levels. If triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide is employed, frequent evaluations of acid/base balance and serum electrolytes are necessary.
Acute Myopia and Secondary Angle-Closure Glaucoma
Hydrochlorothiazide, a sulfonamide, can cause an idiosyncratic reaction, resulting in acute transient myopia and acute angle-closure glaucoma. Symptoms include acute onset of decreased visual acuity or ocular pain and typically occur within hours to weeks of drug initiation. Untreated acute angle-closure glaucoma can lead to permanent vision loss. The primary treatment is to discontinue hydrochlorothiazide as rapidly as possible. Prompt medical or surgical treatments may need to be considered if the intraocular pressure remains uncontrolled. Risk factors for developing acute angle-closure glaucoma may include a history of sulfonamide or penicillin allergy