displayName: DESCRIPTION SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34089-3
Topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide. Topiramate Tablets are available as 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, and 200 mg round tablets for oral administration.
Topiramate USP is a white crystalline powder with a bitter taste. Topiramate USP is most soluble in alkaline solutions containing sodium hydroxide or sodium phosphate and having a pH of 9 to 10. It is freely soluble in acetone, chloroform, dimethylsulfoxide, and ethanol. The solubility in water is 9.8 mg/mL. Its saturated solution has a pH of 6.3. Topiramate USP has the molecular formula C12H21NO8S and a molecular weight of 339.37. Topiramate USP is designated chemically as 2,3:4,5-Di- -isopropylidene-β-Dfructopyranose sulfamate and has the following structural formula:
Topiramate tablets contain the following inactive ingredients: lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, pre-gelatinized starch, lactose monohydrate, sodium starch glycolate, magnesium stearate, opadry white (titanium dioxide, hypromellose 3cp, hypromellose 6cp, PEG 400, polysorbate 80) for 25 mg tablets, opadry yellow (titanium dioxide, hypromellose 3cp, hypromellose 6cp, PEG 400, polysorbate 80, iron oxide yellow) for 50 mg tablets, opadry yellow (hypromellose 3cp, hypromellose 6cp titanium dioxide, PEG 400, iron oxide yellow, polysorbate 80, iron oxide red) for 100 mg tablets and), opadry pink (titanium dioxide, hypromellose 6cp, PEG 400, iron oxide red) for 200 mg tablets.
displayName: CLINICAL STUDIES SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34092-7
The studies described in the following sections were conducted using topiramate tablets.
displayName: CONTRAINDICATIONS SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34070-3
Topiramate tablets are contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to any component of this product.
displayName: WARNINGS SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34071-1
Hyperchloremic, non-anion gap, metabolic acidosis (i.e., decreased serum bicarbonate below the normal reference range in the absence of chronic respiratory alkalosis) is associated with topiramate treatment. This metabolic acidosis is caused by renal bicarbonate loss due to the inhibitory effect of topiramate on carbonic anhydrase. Such electrolyte imbalance has been observed with the use of topiramate in placebo-controlled clinical trials and in the post-marketing period.Generally, topiramate-induced metabolic acidosis occurs early in treatment although cases can occur at any time during treatment. Bicarbonate decrements are usually mild moderate(average decrease of 4 mEq/L at daily doses of 400 mg in adults and at approximately 6 mg/kg/day in pediatric patients); rarely, patients can experience severe decrements to values below 10 mEq/L. Conditions or therapies that predispose to acidosis (such as renal disease, severe respiratory disorders,status epilepticus, diarrhea, surgery, ketogenic diet, or drugs) may be additive to the bicarbonate lowering effects of topiramate.
In adults, the incidence of persistent treatment-emergent decreases in serum bicarbonate (levels of <20 mEq/L at two consecutive visits or at the final visit) in controlled clinical trials for adjunctive treatment of epilepsy was 32% for 400mg/day, and 1% for placebo. Metabolic acidosis has been observed at doses as low as 50 mg/day. The incidence of persistent treatment-emergent decreases in serum bicarbonate in adults in the epilepsy controlled clinical trial for monotherapy was 15% for 50 mg/day and 25% for 400 mg/day. The incidence of a markedly abnormally low serum bicarbonate (i.e., absolute value <17 mEq/L and >5 mEq/L decrease from pretreatment) in the adjunctive therapy trials was 3% for 400mg/day, and 0% for placebo and in the monotherapy trial was 1% for 50 mg/day and 7% for 400 mg/day. Serum bicarbonate levels have not been systematically evaluated at daily doses greater than 400 mg/day.
In pediatric patients (<16 years of age), the incidence of persistent treatment emergent decreases in serum bicarbonate in placebo-controlled trials for adjunctive treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or refractory partial onset seizures was 67% for topiramate (at approximately 6 mg/kg/day), and 10% for placebo. The incidence of a markedly abnormally low serum bicarbonate (i.e., absolute value <17mEq/L and >5 mEq/L decrease from pretreatment) in these trials was 11% for topiramate and 0% for placebo. Cases of moderately severe metabolic acidosis have been reported in patients as young as 5 months old, especially at daily doses above 5 mg/kg/day.
In pediatric patients (10 years up to 16 years of age), the incidence of persistent treatment-emergent decreases in serum bicarbonate in the epilepsy controlled clinical trial for monotherapy was 7% for 50 mg/day and 20% for 400 mg/day. The incidence of a markedly abnormally low serum bicarbonate (i.e., absolute value <17mEq/L and >5 mEq/L decrease from pretreatment) in this trial was 4% for 50mg/day and 4% for 400 mg/day.
The incidence of a markedly abnormally low serum bicarbonate (i.e., absolute value <17 mEq/L and >5 mEq/L decrease from pretreatment) in these trials was 11% for 200 mg/day, 9% for 100 mg/day, 2% for 50 mg/day, and <1% for placebo.
Some manifestations of acute or chronic metabolic acidosis may include hyperventilation, nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue and anorexia, or more severe sequelae including cardiac arrhythmias or stupor. Chronic, untreated metabolic acidosis may increase the risk for nephrolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis, and may also result in osteomalacia (referred to as rickets in pediatric patients) and/or osteoporosis with an increased risk for fractures. Chronic metabolic acidosisin pediatric patients may also reduce growth rates. A reduction in growth rate may eventually decrease the maximal height achieved. The effect of topiramate on growth and bone-related sequelae has not been systematically investigated.
Measurement of baseline and periodic serum bicarbonate during topiramate treatment is recommended. If metabolic acidosis develops and persists, consideration should be given to reducing the dose or discontinuing topiramate (using dose tapering). If the decision is made to continue patients on topiramate in the face of persistent acidosis, alkali treatment should be considered.
displayName: ADVERSE REACTIONS SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34084-4
The data described in the following section were obtained using topiramate tablets.
DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE
displayName: DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE SECTION
FDA Article Code: 42227-9
The abuse and dependence potential of topiramate has not been evaluated in human studies.
displayName: OVERDOSAGE SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34088-5
Overdoses of topiramate have been reported. Signs and symptoms included convulsions, drowsiness, speech disturbance, blurred vision, diplopia, mentation impaired, lethargy, abnormal coordination, stupor, hypotension, abdominal pain, agitation, dizziness and depression. The clinical consequences were not severe in most cases, but deaths have been reported after poly-drug overdoses involving topiramate.
Topiramate overdose has resulted in severe metabolic acidosis (see ).
A patient who ingested a dose between 96 g and 110 g topiramate was admitted to hospital with coma lasting 20 to 24 hours followed by full recovery after 3 to 4 days.
In acute topiramate overdose, if the ingestion is recent, the stomach should be emptied immediately by lavage or by induction of emesis. Activated charcoal has been shown to adsorb topiramate . Treatment should be appropriately supportive. Hemodialysis is an effective means of removing topiramate from the body.
Topiramate 50mg Tablet
displayName: PACKAGE LABEL.PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL
FDA Article Code: 51945-4