displayName: DESCRIPTION SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34089-3
The active ingredient in Ranitidine Syrup (Ranitidine Oral Solution, USP) is ranitidine hydrochloride (HCl), USP, a histamine H2-receptor antagonist. Chemically it is N-[2-[[[5-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-2-furanyl]methyl]thio]ethyl]-N′- methyl-2-nitro-1,1-ethenediamine, HCl. It has the following structure:
The empirical formula is C13H22N4O3S•HCl, representing a molecular weight of 350.87.
Ranitidine HCl is a white to pale yellow, granular substance that is soluble in water. It has a slightly bitter taste and sulfurlike odor.
Each 1 mL of Ranitidine Syrup (Ranitidine Oral Solution, USP) contains 16.8 mg of ranitidine HCl equivalent to 15 mg of ranitidine. Ranitidine Syrup (Ranitidine Oral Solution, USP) also contains the inactive ingredients acesulfame-K, dibasic sodium phosphate, glycerin, peppermint flavor, propylene glycol, propylparaben, purified water, methylparaben, monobasic sodium phosphate, sodium saccharin, and water (Purified).
displayName: CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34090-1
Ranitidine is a competitive, reversible inhibitor of the action of histamine at the histamine H2-receptors, including receptors on the gastric cells. Ranitidine does not lower serum Ca++ in hypercalcemic states. Ranitidine is not an anticholinergic agent.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
displayName: INDICATIONS & USAGE SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34067-9
Ranitidine oral solution is indicated in:
Concomitant antacids should be given as needed for pain relief to patients with active duodenal ulcer; active, benign gastric ulcer; hypersecretory states; GERD; and erosive esophagitis.
- Short-term treatment of active duodenal ulcer. Most patients heal within 4 weeks. Studies available to date have not assessed the safety of ranitidine in uncomplicated duodenal ulcer for periods of more than 8 weeks.
- Maintenance therapy for duodenal ulcer patients at reduced dosage after healing of acute ulcers. No placebo-controlled comparative studies have been carried out for periods of longer than 1 year.
- The treatment of pathological hypersecretory conditions (e.g., Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and systemic mastocytosis).
- Short-term treatment of active, benign gastric ulcer. Most patients heal within 6 weeks and the usefulness of further treatment has not been demonstrated. Studies available to date have not assessed the safety of ranitidine in uncomplicated, benign gastric ulcer for periods of more than 6 weeks.
- Maintenance therapy for gastric ulcer patients at reduced dosage after healing of acute ulcers. Placebo-controlled studies have been carried out for 1 year.
- Treatment of GERD. Symptomatic relief commonly occurs within 24 hours after starting therapy with ranitidine 150 mg twice daily.
- Treatment of endoscopically diagnosed erosive esophagitis. Symptomatic relief of heartburn commonly occurs within 24 hours of therapy initiation with ranitidine 150 mg 4 times daily.
- Maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis. Placebo-controlled trials have been carried out for 48 weeks.
displayName: CONTRAINDICATIONS SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34070-3
Ranitidine is contraindicated for patients known to have hypersensitivity to the drug or any of the ingredients (see PRECAUTIONS).
displayName: ADVERSE REACTIONS SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34084-4
The following have been reported as events in clinical trials or in the routine management of patients treated with ranitidine. The relationship to therapy with ranitidine has been unclear in many cases. Headache, sometimes severe, seems to be related to administration of ranitidine.
Central Nervous System: Rarely, malaise, dizziness, somnolence, insomnia, and vertigo. Rare cases of reversible mental confusion, agitation, depression, and hallucinations have been reported, predominantly in severely ill elderly patients. Rare cases of reversible blurred vision suggestive of a change in accommodation have been reported. Rare reports of reversible involuntary motor disturbances have been received.
Cardiovascular: As with other H2-blockers, rare reports of arrhythmias such as tachycardia, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, and premature ventricular beats.
Gastrointestinal: Constipation, diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, abdominal discomfort/pain, and rare reports of pancreatitis.
Hepatic: There have been occasional reports of hepatocellular, cholestatic, or mixed hepatitis, with or without jaundice. In such circumstances, ranitidine should be immediately discontinued. These events are usually reversible, but in rare circumstances death has occurred. Rare cases of hepatic failure have also been reported. In normal volunteers, SGPT values were increased to at least twice the pretreatment levels in 6 of 12 subjects receiving 100 mg intravenously 4 times daily for 7 days, and in 4 of 24 subjects receiving 50 mg intravenously 4 times daily for 5 days.
Musculoskeletal: Rare reports of arthralgias and myalgias.
Hematologic: Blood count changes (leukopenia, granulocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia) have occurred in a few patients. These were usually reversible. Rare cases of agranulocytosis, pancytopenia, sometimes with marrow hypoplasia, and aplastic anemia and exceedingly rare cases of acquired immune hemolytic anemia have been reported.
Endocrine: Controlled studies in animals and man have shown no stimulation of any pituitary hormone by ranitidine and no antiandrogenic activity, and cimetidine-induced gynecomastia and impotence in hypersecretory patients have resolved when ranitidine has been substituted. However, occasional cases of impotence and loss of libido have been reported in male patients receiving ranitidine, but the incidence did not differ from that in the general population. Rare cases of breast symptoms and conditions, including galactorrhea and gynecomastia, have been reported in both males and females.
Integumentary: Rash, including rare cases of erythema multiforme. Rare cases of alopecia and vasculitis.
Respiratory: A large epidemiological study suggested an increased risk of developing pneumonia in current users of histamine-2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) compared to patients who had stopped H2RA treatment, with an observed adjusted relative risk of 1.63 (95% CI, 1.07 – 2.48). However, a causal relationship between use of H2RAs and pneumonia has not been established.
Other: Rare cases of hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., bronchospasm, fever, rash, eosinophilia), anaphylaxis, angioneurotic edema, acute interstitial nephritis, and small increases in serum creatinine.
displayName: OVERDOSAGE SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34088-5
There has been limited experience with overdosage. Reported acute ingestions of up to 18 g orally have been associated with transient adverse effects similar to those encountered in normal clinical experience (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). In addition, abnormalities of gait and hypotension have been reported.
When overdosage occurs, the usual measures to remove unabsorbed material from the gastrointestinal tract, clinical monitoring, and supportive therapy should be employed.
Studies in dogs receiving dosages of ranitidine in excess of 225 mg/kg/day have shown muscular tremors, vomiting, and rapid respiration. Single oral doses of 1,000 mg/kg in mice and rats were not lethal. Intravenous LD50 values in mice and rats were 77 and 83 mg/kg, respectively.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
displayName: DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34068-7
Active Duodenal Ulcer: The current recommended adult oral dosage of ranitidine for duodenal ulcer is 150 mg or 10 mL of oral solution (2 teaspoonfuls of oral solution equivalent to 150 mg of ranitidine) twice daily. An alternative dosage of 300 mg or 20 mL of oral solution (4 teaspoonfuls of oral solution equivalent to 300 mg of ranitidine) once daily after the evening meal or at bedtime can be used for patients in whom dosing convenience is important. The advantages of one treatment regimen compared to the other in a particular patient population have yet to be demonstrated (see Clinical Trials:
Active Duodenal Ulcer
). Smaller doses have been shown to be equally effective in inhibiting gastric acid secretion in US studies, and several foreign trials have shown that 100 mg twice daily is as effective as the 150-mg dose.
Antacid should be given as needed for relief of pain (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics).
Maintenance of Healing of Duodenal Ulcers: The current recommended adult oral dosage is 150 mg or 10 mL of oral solution (2 teaspoonfuls of oral solution equivalent to 150 mg of ranitidine) at bedtime.
Pathological Hypersecretory Conditions (such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome): The current recommended adult oral dosage is 150 mg or 10 mL of oral solution (2 teaspoonfuls of oral solution equivalent to 150 mg of ranitidine) twice daily. In some patients it may be necessary to administer ranitidine 150-mg doses more frequently. Dosages should be adjusted to individual patient needs, and should continue as long as clinically indicated. Dosages up to 6 g/day have been employed in patients with severe disease.
Benign Gastric Ulcer: The current recommended adult oral dosage is 150 mg or 10 mL of oral solution (2 teaspoonfuls of oral solution equivalent to 150 mg of ranitidine) twice daily.
Maintenance of Healing of Gastric Ulcers: The current recommended adult oral dosage is 150 mg or 10 mL of oral solution (2 teaspoonfuls of oral solution equivalent to 150 mg of ranitidine) at bedtime.
GERD: The current recommended adult oral dosage is 150 mg or 10 mL of oral solution (2 teaspoonfuls of oral solution equivalent to 150 mg of ranitidine) twice daily.
Erosive Esophagitis: The current recommended adult oral dosage is 150 mg or 10 mL of oral solution (2 teaspoonfuls of oral solution equivalent to 150 mg of ranitidine) 4 times daily.
Maintenance of Healing of Erosive Esophagitis: The current recommended adult oral dosage is 150 mg or 10 mL of oral solution (2 teaspoonfuls of oral solution equivalent to 150 mg of ranitidine) twice daily.
Pediatric Use: The safety and effectiveness of ranitidine have been established in the age-group of 1 month to 16 years. There is insufficient information about the pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in neonatal patients (less than 1 month of age) to make dosing recommendations.
The following 3 subsections provide dosing information for each of the pediatric indications.
Treatment of Duodenal and Gastric Ulcers:
The recommended oral dose for the treatment of active duodenal and gastric ulcers is 2 to 4 mg/kg twice daily to a maximum of 300 mg/day. This recommendation is derived from adult clinical studies and pharmacokinetic data in pediatric patients.
Maintenance of Healing of Duodenal and Gastric Ulcers:
The recommended oral dose for the maintenance of healing of duodenal and gastric ulcers is 2 to 4 mg/kg once daily to a maximum of 150 mg/day. This recommendation is derived from adult clinical studies and pharmacokinetic data in pediatric patients.
Treatment of GERD and Erosive Esophagitis:
Although limited data exist for these conditions in pediatric patients, published literature supports a dosage of 5 to 10 mg/kg/day, usually given as 2 divided doses.
Dosage Adjustment for Patients With Impaired Renal Function: On the basis of experience with a group of subjects with severely impaired renal function treated with ranitidine, the recommended dosage in patients with a creatinine clearance <50 mL/min is 150 mg or 10 mL of oral solution (2 teaspoonfuls of oral solution equivalent to 150 mg of ranitidine) every 24 hours. Should the patient’s condition require, the frequency of dosing may be increased to every 12 hours or even further with caution. Hemodialysis reduces the level of circulating ranitidine. Ideally, the dosing schedule should be adjusted so that the timing of a scheduled dose coincides with the end of hemodialysis.
Elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, therefore caution should be exercised in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics: Geriatrics and PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use).
displayName: HOW SUPPLIED SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34069-5
Ranitidine Oral Solution, a clear, peppermint-flavored liquid, contains 16.8 mg of ranitidine HCl equivalent to 15 mg of ranitidine per 1 mL (75 mg/5 mL) in bottles of 16 fluid ounces (one pint) (NDC 54838-550-80).
Store between 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F)[See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Do not freeze.
Dispense in tight, light-resistant containers as defined in the USP/NF.
Lannett Company, Inc.
Philadelphia, PA 19154