displayName: DESCRIPTION SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34089-3
Metoprolol tartrate injection is a sterile solution containing metoprolol tartrate, a selective beta1-adrenoreceptor blocking agent, available for intravenous administration. Metoprolol tartrate is 1-(isopropylamino)-3-[p-(2-methoxyethyl)phenoxy]-2-propanol (2:1) dextro-tartrate salt. Its structural formula is:
Metoprolol tartrate is a white, crystalline powder with a molecular weight of 684.82. It is very soluble in water; freely soluble in methylene chloride, in chloroform, and in alcohol; slightly soluble in acetone; and insoluble in ether.Each 5 mL vial contains: Metoprolol Tartrate 5 mg, Sodium Chloride 45 mg, in Water for Injection q. s.
displayName: CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34090-1
Metoprolol tartrate is a beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent. In vitro and in vivo animal studies have shown that it has a preferential effect on beta1 adrenoreceptors, chiefly located in cardiac muscle. This preferential effect is not absolute, however, and at higher doses, metoprolol also inhibits beta2 adrenoreceptors, chiefly located in the bronchial and vascular musculature.Clinical pharmacology studies have confirmed the beta-blocking activity of metoprolol in man, as shown by (1) reduction in heart rate and cardiac output at rest and upon exercise, (2) reduction of systolic blood pressure upon exercise, (3) inhibition of isoproterenol-induced tachycardia, and (4) reduction of reflex orthostatic tachycardia.Relative beta1 selectivity has been confirmed by the following: (1) In normal subjects, metoprolol is unable to reverse the beta2-mediated vasodilating effects of epinephrine. This contrasts with the effect of nonselective (beta1 plus beta2) beta blockers, which completely reverse the vasodilating effects of epinephrine. (2) In asthmatic patients, metoprolol reduces FEV1 and FVC significantly less than a nonselective beta blocker, propranolol, at equivalent beta1-receptor blocking doses.Metoprolol has no intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, and membrane-stabilizing activity is detectable only at doses much greater than required for beta blockade. Metoprolol crosses the blood-brain barrier and has been reported in the CSF in a concentration 78% of the simultaneous plasma concentration. Animal and human experiments indicate that metoprolol slows the sinus rate and decreases AV nodal conduction.In a large (1,395 patients randomized), double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, metoprolol was shown to reduce 3-month mortality by 36% in patients with suspected or definite myocardial infarction.Patients were randomized and treated as soon as possible after their arrival in the hospital, once their clinical condition had stabilized and their hemodynamic status had been carefully evaluated.Subjects were ineligible if they had hypotension, bradycardia, peripheral signs of shock, and/or more than minimal basal rales as signs of congestive heart failure. Initial treatment consisted of intravenous followed by oral administration of metoprolol tartrate or placebo, given in a coronary care or comparable unit. Oral maintenance therapy with metoprolol or placebo was then continued for 3 months. After this double-blind period, all patients were given metoprolol and followed up to 1 year.The median delay from the onset of symptoms to the initiation of therapy was 8 hours in both the metoprolol and placebo treatment groups. Among patients treated with metoprolol, there were comparable reductions in 3-month mortality for those treated early (≤ 8 hours) and those in whom treatment was started later. Significant reductions in the incidence of ventricular fibrillation and in chest pain following initial intravenous therapy were also observed with metoprolol and were independent of the interval between onset of symptoms and initiation of therapy.The precise mechanism of action of metoprolol in patients with suspected or definite myocardial infarction is not known.In this study, patients treated with metoprolol received the drug both very early (intravenously) and during a subsequent 3-month period, while placebo patients received no beta blocker treatment for this period. The study thus was able to show a benefit from the overall metoprolol regimen but cannot separate the benefit of very early intravenous treatment from the benefit of later beta blocker therapy. Nonetheless, because the overall regimen showed a clear beneficial effect on survival without evidence of an early adverse effect on survival, one acceptable dosage regimen is the precise regimen used in the trial. Because the specific benefit of very early treatment remains to be defined however, it is also reasonable to administer the drug orally to patients at a later time as is recommended for certain other beta blockers.PharmacokineticsIn man, absorption of metoprolol is rapid and complete. Plasma levels following oral administration, however, approximate 50% of levels following intravenous administration, indicating about 50% first-pass metabolism.Plasma levels achieved are highly variable after oral administration. Only a small fraction of the drug (about 12%) is bound to human serum albumin. Elimination is mainly by biotransformation in the liver, and the plasma half-life ranges from approximately 3 to 7 hours. The systemic availability and half-life of metoprolol in patients with renal failure do not differ to a clinically significant degree from those in normal subjects. Consequently, no reduction in dosage is usually needed in patients with chronic renal failure.Following intravenous administration of metoprolol, the urinary recovery of unchanged drug is approximately 10%. When the drug was infused over a 10 minute period, in normal volunteers, maximum beta blockade was achieved at approximately 20 minutes. Doses of 5 mg and 15 mg yielded a maximal reduction in exercise-induced heart rate of approximately 10% and 15%, respectively. The effect on exercise heart rate decreased linearly with time at the same rate for both doses, and disappeared at approximately 5 hours and 8 hours for the 5 mg and 15 mg doses, respectively.Equivalent maximal beta-blocking effect is achieved with oral and intravenous doses in the ratio of approximately 2.5:1.There is a linear relationship between the log of plasma levels and reduction of exercise heart rate.In several studies of patients with acute myocardial infarction, intravenous followed by oral administration of metoprolol caused a reduction in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and cardiac output. Stroke volume, diastolic blood pressure, and pulmonary artery end diastolic pressure remained unchanged.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
displayName: INDICATIONS & USAGE SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34067-9
Myocardial InfarctionMetoprolol tartrate injection and tablets are indicated in the treatment of hemodynamically stable patients with definite or suspected acute myocardial infarction to reduce cardiovascular mortality. Treatment with intravenous metoprolol tartrate can be initiated as soon as the patient’s clinical condition allows (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, CONTRAINDICATIONS, and WARNINGS). Alternatively, treatment can begin within 3 to 10 days of the acute event (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
displayName: CONTRAINDICATIONS SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34070-3
Myocardial InfarctionMetoprolol is contraindicated in patients with a heart rate < 45 beats/min; second- and third-degree heart block; significant first-degree heart block (P-R interval ≥ 0.24 sec); systolic blood pressure < 100 mmHg; or moderate-to-severe cardiac failure (see WARNINGS).
displayName: ADVERSE REACTIONS SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34084-4
Myocardial InfarctionCentral Nervous System:Tiredness has been reported in about 1 of 100 patients. Vertigo, sleep disturbances, hallucinations, headache, dizziness, visual disturbances, confusion, and reduced libido have also been reported, but a drug relationship is not clear.Cardiovascular:In the randomized comparison of metoprolol and placebo described in the CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY section, the following adverse reactions were reported:
Respiratory:Dyspnea of pulmonary origin has been reported in fewer than 1 of 100 patients.Gastrointestinal:Nausea and abdominal pain have been reported in fewer than 1 of 100 patients.Dermatologic:Rash and worsened psoriasis have been reported, but a drug relationship is not clear.Miscellaneous:Unstable diabetes and claudication have been reported, but a drug relationship is not clear.Potential Adverse ReactionsA variety of adverse reactions not listed above have been reported with other beta-adrenergic blocking agents and should be considered potential adverse reactions to metoprolol.Central Nervous System:Reversible mental depression progressing to catatonia; an acute reversible syndrome characterized by disorientation for time and place, short-term memory loss, emotional lability, slightly clouded sensorium, and decreased performance on neuropsychometrics.Cardiovascular:Intensification of AV block (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).Hematologic:Agranulocytosis, nonthrombocytopenic purpura, thrombocytopenic purpura.Hypersensitive Reactions:Fever combined with aching and sore throat, laryngospasm, and respiratory distress.
||(systolic BP < 90 mmHg)
||(heart rate < 40 beats/min)
|Second- or third-degree heart block
|First-degree heart block
||(P-R ≥ 0.26 sec)
displayName: OVERDOSAGE SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34088-5
Acute ToxicitySeveral cases of overdosage have been reported, some leading to death.Oral LD50’s (mg/kg): mice, 1158-2460; rats, 3090-4670.Signs and SymptomsPotential signs and symptoms associated with overdosage with metoprolol are bradycardia, hypotension, bronchospasm, and cardiac failure.TreatmentThere is no specific antidote.In general, patients with acute or recent myocardial infarction may be more hemo-dynamically unstable than other patients and should be treated accordingly (see WARNINGS, Myocardial Infarction).On the basis of the pharmacologic actions of metoprolol, the following general measures should be employed:Elimination of the Drug:Gastric lavage should be performed.Bradycardia:Atropine should be administered. If there is no response to vagal blockade, isoproterenol should be administered cautiously.Hypotension:A vasopressor should be administered, e.g., norepinephrine or dopamine.Bronchospasm:A beta2-stimulating agent and/or a theophylline derivative should be administered.Cardiac Failure: A digitalis glycoside and diuretic should be administered. In shock resulting from inadequate cardiac contractility, administration of dobutamine, isoproterenol, or glucagon may be considered.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
displayName: DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34068-7
displayName: HOW SUPPLIED SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34069-5
Metoprolol Tartrate Injection USP, 1 mg/mL is available in 5 mL single dose vials, in cartons of 3.Store at controlled room temperature 15°-30°C (59°-86°F).PROTECT FROM LIGHT. Store in carton until time of use.Literature revised: December 2002
Watson Laboratories, Inc.
Product No.: 0958-05
Corona, CA 92880 USA