DOXYCYCLINE TABLETS

/DOXYCYCLINE TABLETS
DOXYCYCLINE TABLETS2018-09-06T09:12:40+00:00

Prescription Drug Name:

DOXYCYCLINE TABLETS

ID:

5ed9d185-f5dd-4d83-bd04-4492dc8df0f1

Code:

34391-3

DESCRIPTION


id: 3b6524a2-ef92-4dd2-8a4d-756818003001
displayName: DESCRIPTION SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34089-3

Doxycycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic synthetically derived from oxytetracycline. Doxycycline 100 mg tablets contain doxycycline monohydrate equivalent to 100 mg of doxycycline for oral administration. Inactive ingredients include anhydrous lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, corn starch, colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, polyvinyl alcohol, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol, talc, D&C yellow #10 aluminum lake, and FD&C yellow #6 aluminum lake. The chemical designation of the light-yellow crystalline powder is 4-(Dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,5,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-1,11-dioxo-2-naphthacenecarboxamide monohydrate. Structural formula: Doxycycline has a high degree of lipid solubility and a low affinity for calcium binding. It is highly stable in normal human serum. Doxycycline will not degrade into an epianhydro form.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY


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displayName: CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34090-1

Tetracyclines are readily absorbed and are bound to plasma proteins in varying degrees. They are concentrated by the liver in the bile and excreted in the urine and feces at high concentrations in a biologically active form. Doxycycline is virtually completely absorbed after oral administration. Following a 200 mg dose of doxycycline monohydrate, 24 normal adult volunteers averaged the following serum concentration values:

 Time (hr):  0.5  1.0  1.5  2.0  3.0  4.0  8.0  12.0  24.0  48.0  72.0
 Conc. (mcg/mL)  1.02  2.26  2.67  3.01  3.16  3.03  2.03  1.62  0.95  0.37  0.15
Average Observed Values    
     Maximum Concentration  3.61 mcg/mL (± 0.9 sd)
     Time of Maximum Concentration  2.60 hr (± 1.10 sd)
     Elimination Rate Constant  0.049 per hr (± 0.030 sd)
     Half-Life  16.33 hr (± 4.53 sd)
Excretion of doxycycline by the kidney is about 40%/72 hours in individuals with normal function (creatinine clearance about 75 mL/min). This percentage excretion may fall as low as 1-5%/72 hours in individuals with severe renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance below 10 mL/min). Studies have shown no significant difference in serum half-life of doxycycline (range 18-22 hours) in individuals with normal and severely impaired renal function. Hemodialysis does not alter serum half-life.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE


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displayName: INDICATIONS & USAGE SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34067-9

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain effectiveness of doxycycline tablets and other antibacterial drugs, doxycycline tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy. Doxycycline is indicated for the treatment of the following infections: Rocky mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsialpox, and tick fevers caused by Rickettsiae.
Respiratory tract infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
Lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.
Psittacosis (ornithosis) caused by Chlamydia psittaci.
Trachoma caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, although the infectious agent is not always eliminated as judged by immunofluorescence.
Inclusion conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.
Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical or rectal infections in adults caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.
Nongonococcal urethritis caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum.
Relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis.
Doxycycline is also indicated for the treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative microorganisms: Chancroid caused by Haemophilus ducreyi.
Plague due to Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis).
Tularemia due to Francisella tularensis (formerly Pasteurella tularensis).
Cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae (formerly Vibrio comma).
Campylobacter fetus infections caused by Campylobacter fetus (formerly Vibrio fetus).
Brucellosis due to Brucella species (in conjunction with streptomycin).
Bartonellosis due to Bartonella bacilliformis.
Granuloma inguinale caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.
Because many strains of the following groups of microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to doxycycline, culture and susceptibility testing are recommended. Doxycycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative microorganisms, when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug: Escherichia coli

Enterobacter aerogenes (formerly Aerobacter aerogenes)
Shigella species
Acinetobacter species (formerly Mima species and Herellea species)
Respiratory tract infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae.
Respiratory tract and urinary tract infections caused by Klebsiella species. Doxycycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-positive microorganisms, when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug: Upper respiratory infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (formerly Diplococcus pneumoniae). Skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis, including inhalational anthrax (post-exposure): to reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis. Doxycycline is not the drug of choice in the treatment of any type of staphylococcal infections. When penicillin is contraindicated, doxycycline is an alternative drug in the treatment of the following infections: Uncomplicated gonorrhea caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum.
Yaws caused by Treponema pertenue.
Listeriosis due to Listeria monocytogenes.
Vincent’s infection caused by Fusobacterium fusiforme.
Actinomycosis caused by Actinomyces israelii.
Infections caused by Clostridium species.
In acute intestinal amebiasis, doxycycline may be a useful adjunct to amebicides. In severe acne, doxycycline may be useful adjunctive therapy.

CONTRAINDICATIONS


id: 5c8834bd-1297-4558-ab30-f341d3a162c2
displayName: CONTRAINDICATIONS SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34070-3

This drug is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines.

WARNINGS


id: a200022c-5305-436f-bb91-be4d7cdeccaf
displayName: WARNINGS SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34071-1

THE USE OF DRUGS OF THE TETRACYCLINE CLASS DURING TOOTH DEVELOPMENT (LAST HALF OF PREGNANCY, INFANCY, AND CHILDHOOD TO THE AGE OF 8 YEARS) MAY CAUSE PERMANENT DISCOLORATION OF THE TEETH (YELLOW-GRAY-BROWN). This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drugs but has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported. TETRACYCLINE DRUGS, THEREFORE, SHOULD NOT BE USED IN THIS AGE GROUP, EXCEPT FOR ANTHRAX, INCLUDING INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX (POST-EXPOSURE), UNLESS OTHER DRUGS ARE NOT LIKELY TO BE EFFECTIVE OR ARE CONTRAINDICATED. Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including doxycycline tablets, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile. C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents. If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated. All tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone-forming tissue. A decrease in the fibula growth rate has been observed in prematures given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg/kg every six hours. This reaction was shown to be reversible when the drug was discontinued. Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of embryo toxicity has been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy. If any tetracycline is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking these drugs, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. The antianabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in BUN. Studies to date indicate that this does not occur with the use of doxycycline in patients with impaired renal function. Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. Patients apt to be exposed to direct sunlight or ultraviolet light should be advised that this reaction can occur with tetracycline drugs, and treatment should be discontinued at the first evidence of skin erythema.

ADVERSE REACTIONS


id: 987519df-3223-4978-8e86-7ad385756461
displayName: ADVERSE REACTIONS SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34084-4

Due to oral doxycycline’s virtually complete absorption, side effects to the lower bowel, particularly diarrhea, have been infrequent. The following adverse reactions have been observed in patients receiving tetracyclines. Gastrointestinal: Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, glossitis, dysphagia, enterocolitis, and inflammatory lesions (with monilial overgrowth) in the anogenital region. These reactions have been caused by both the oral and parenteral administration of tetracyclines. Rare instances of esophagitis and esophageal ulcerations have been reported in patients receiving capsule and tablet forms of drugs in the tetracycline class. Most of these patients took medications immediately before going to bed. (See
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.
)
Skin: Maculopapular and erythematous rashes. Exfoliative dermatitis has been reported but is uncommon. Photosensitivity is discussed above. (See
WARNINGS.)
Renal Toxicity: Rise in BUN has been reported and is apparently dose related. (See
WARNINGS
.)
Hypersensitivity Reactions: Urticaria, angioneurotic edema, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid purpura, pericarditis, and exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus. Blood: Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and eosinophilia have been reported with tetracyclines. Other: Bulging fontanels in infants and intracranial hypertension in adults. (See
PRECAUTIONS – General
.)
When given over prolonged periods, tetracyclines have been reported to produce brown-black microscopic discoloration of the thyroid gland. No abnormalities of thyroid function are known to occur.

OVERDOSAGE


id: e556ab61-208c-4cb3-b91d-edd0ddee54ae
displayName: OVERDOSAGE SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34088-5

In case of overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically and institute supportive measures. Dialysis does not alter serum half-life, and it would not be of benefit in treating cases of overdosage.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION


id: 24fd0712-1eca-4cf9-88ea-76e2fbceb25b
displayName: DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34068-7

THE USUAL DOSAGE AND FREQUENCY OF ADMINISTRATION OF DOXYCYCLINE DIFFERS FROM THAT OF THE OTHER TETRACYCLINES. EXCEEDING THE RECOMMENDED DOSAGE MAY RESULT IN AN INCREASED INCIDENCE OF SIDE EFFECTS. Adults The usual dose of oral doxycycline is 200 mg on the first day of treatment (administered 100 mg every 12 hours or 50 mg every 6 hours) followed by a maintenance dose of 100 mg/day. The maintenance dose may be administered as a single dose or as 50 mg every 12 hours. In the management of more severe infections (particularly chronic infections of the urinary tract), 100 mg every 12 hours is recommended. For pediatric patients above eight years of age The recommended dosage schedule for pediatric patients weighing 100 pounds or less is 2 mg/lb of body weight divided into two doses on the first day of treatment, followed by 1 mg/lb of body weight given as a single daily dose or divided into two doses, on subsequent days. For more severe infections up to 2 mg/lb of body weight may be used. For pediatric patients over 100 pounds the usual adult dose should be used. Uncomplicated gonococcal infections in adults (except anorectal infections in men): 100 mg, by mouth, twice a day for 7 days. As an alternate single visit dose, administer 300 mg stat followed in one hour by a second 300 mg dose. Acute epididymo-orchitis caused by N. gonorrhoeae:
100 mg, by mouth, twice a day for at least 10 days.
Primary and secondary syphilis: 300 mg a day in divided doses for at least 10 days. Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infection in adults caused by Chlamydia trachomatis:
100 mg, by mouth, twice a day for at least 7 days.
Nongonococcal urethritis caused by C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum:
100 mg, by mouth, twice a day for at least 7 days.
Acute epididymo-orchitis caused by C. trachomatis:
100 mg, by mouth, twice a day for at least 10 days.
Inhalational anthrax (post-exposure): ADULTS: 100 mg of doxycycline, by mouth, twice a day for 60 days. CHILDREN: weighing less than 100 pounds (45 kg); 1 mg/lb (2.2 mg/kg) of body weight, by mouth, twice a day for 60 days. Children weighing 100 pounds or more should receive the adult dose. When used in streptococcal infections, therapy should be continued for 10 days. Administration of adequate amounts of fluid along with capsule and tablet forms of drugs in the tetracycline class is recommended to wash down the drugs and reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration. (See
ADVERSE REACTIONS.
) If gastric irritation occurs, doxycycline may be given with food. Ingestion of a high fat meal has been shown to delay the time to peak plasma concentrations by an average of one hour and 20 minutes. However, in the same study, food enhanced the average peak concentration by 7.5% and the area under the curve by 5.7%.

HOW SUPPLIED


id: 0d9f4e38-078c-4fca-807d-a4df711543f9
displayName: HOW SUPPLIED SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34069-5

Doxycycline Tablets 100 mg are yellow, film coated, caplets, debossed LCI on one face and 1338 on the other face. Each tablet contains doxycycline monohydrate equivalent to 100 mg of doxycycline. They are supplied as follows: Bottles of 20-NDC 0179-0129-20 Bottles of 14-NDC 0179-0129-14 Dispense in a tight light-resistant container with a child-resistant closure. Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F)[see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. PROTECT FROM LIGHT.

ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY AND ANIMAL TOXICOLOGY


id: 59ab32fe-cdee-4701-9ce4-8e9423ec24ce
displayName: ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY & OR TOXICOLOGY SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34091-9

Hyperpigmentation of the thyroid has been produced by members of the tetracycline class in the following species: in rats by oxytetracycline, doxycycline, tetracycline PO4, and methacycline; in minipigs by doxycycline, minocycline, tetracycline PO4, and methacycline; in dogs by doxycycline and minocycline; in monkeys by minocycline. Minocycline, tetracycline PO4, methacycline, doxycycline, tetracycline base, oxytetracycline HCl and tetracycline HCl were goitrogenic in rats fed a low iodine diet. This goitrogenic effect was accompanied by high radioactive iodine uptake. Administration of minocycline also produced a large goiter with high radioiodine uptake in rats fed a relatively high iodine diet. Treatment of various animal species with this class of drugs has also resulted in the induction of thyroid hyperplasia in the following: in rats and dogs (minocycline), in chickens (chlortetracycline) and in rats and mice (oxytetracycline). Adrenal gland hyperplasia has been observed in goats and rats treated with oxytetracycline.

REFERENCES


id: 8850193e-2b37-4639-8e4b-5b1a7cd954a1
displayName: REFERENCES SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34093-5

National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically – Fifth Edition. Approved Standard NCCLS Document M7-A5, Vol. 20, No. 2, NCCLS, Wayne, PA, January, 2000.
National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests – Seventh Edition. Approved Standard NCCLS Document M2-A7, Vol. 20, No. 1, NCCLS, Wayne, PA, January, 2000.
National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing- Eleventh Informational Supplement. NCCLS Document M100-S11, Vol. 21, No. 1, NCCLS, Wayne, PA, January, 2001.
National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Methods for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria – Fourth Edition. Approved Standard NCCLS Document M11-A4, Vol. 17, No. 22, NCCLS, Wayne, PA, December, 1997.
Friedman JM and Polifka JE. Teratogenic Effects of Drugs. A Resource for Clinicians (TERIS). Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press: 2000: 149-195.
Cziezel AE and Rockenbauer M. Teratogenic study of doxycycline. Obstet Gynecol 1997; 89:524-528.
Horne HW Jr. and Kundsin RB. The role of mycoplasma among 81 consecutive pregnancies: a prospective study. Int J Fertil 1980; 25:315-317.
Hale T. Medications and Mothers Milk. 9th edition. Amarillo, TX: Pharmasoft Publishing 2000; 225-226.

Doxycycline 100mg Label – 20’s


id: d039a777-35c9-4117-94df-a1a480051b91
displayName: PACKAGE LABEL.PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL
FDA Article Code: 51945-4

NDC 0179-0129-20 DOXYCYCLINE TABLETS 100 mg Rx Only 20 TABLETS KAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS

Doxycycline 100mg Label-14’s


id: b33d0893-866e-40c5-a0de-6c144b7fd0cd
displayName: PACKAGE LABEL.PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL
FDA Article Code: 51945-4

NDC 0179-0129-14 DOXYCYCLINE TABLETS 100 mg Rx Only 14 TABLETS KAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS