CLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTION

/CLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTION
CLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTION2018-09-06T09:12:40+00:00

Prescription Drug Name:

CLONIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE INJECTION

ID:

bfdf5529-ee6b-4d6a-b1c7-e5b2b3827579

Code:

34391-3

DESCRIPTION


id: 0938d148-ecbf-4e88-b753-b922aa29f1d3
displayName: DESCRIPTION SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34089-3

Clonidine hydrochloride injection is a centrally-acting analgesic solution for use in continuous epidural infusion devices. Clonidine hydrochloride is an imidazoline derivative and exists as a mesomeric compound. The chemical names are Benzenamine,2,6-dichloro-N-2-imidazolidinylidene monohydrochloride and 2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl) imino]imidazolidine monohydrochloride. The following is the structural formula: Clonidine hydrochloride injection is supplied as a clear, colorless, preservative-free, pyrogen-free, aqueous sterile solution (pH 5 to 7) in single-dose, 10 mL vials. Each mL of the 100 mcg/mL (0.1 mg/mL) concentration contains clonidine hydrochloride 100 mcg and sodium chloride 9 mg in water for injection. Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added for pH adjustment. Each 10 mL vial contains clonidine hydrochloride 1 mg (1000 mcg). Each mL of the 500 mcg/mL (0.5 mg/mL) concentration contains clonidine hydrochloride 500 mcg and sodium chloride 9 mg in water for injection. Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added for pH adjustment. Each 10 mL vial contains clonidine hydrochloride 5 mg (5000 mcg).

INDICATIONS AND USAGE


id: f7081c5b-bd33-4ad8-8bd6-8a3bd5842807
displayName: INDICATIONS & USAGE SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34067-9

Clonidine hydrochloride is indicated in combination with opiates for the treatment of severe pain in cancer patients that is not adequately relieved by opioid analgesics alone. Epidural clonidine is more likely to be effective in patients with neuropathic pain than somatic or visceral pain (seeCLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Clinical Trials). The safety of this drug product has only been established in a highly selected group of cancer patients, and only after an adequate trial of opioid analgesia. Other use is of unproven safety and is not recommended. In a rare patient, the potential benefits may outweigh the known risks (seeWARNINGS).

CONTRAINDICATIONS


id: e6908727-98c9-4199-aa0e-d4dc7c68cb52
displayName: CONTRAINDICATIONS SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34070-3

Clonidine hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients with a history of sensitization or allergic reactions to clonidine. Epidural administration is contraindicated in the presence of an injection site infection, in patients on anticoagulant therapy, and in those with a bleeding diathesis. Administration of clonidine hydrochloride above the C4 dermatome is contraindicated since there are no adequate safety data to support such use. (See WARNINGS).

ADVERSE REACTIONS


id: 6f1c32be-c983-4aae-82d4-a9880e1f5260
displayName: ADVERSE REACTIONS SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34084-4

Adverse reactions seen during continuous epidural clonidine infusion are dose-dependent and typical for a compound of this pharmacologic class. The adverse events most frequently reported in the pivotal controlled clinical trial of continuous epidural clonidine administration consisted of hypotension, postural hypotension, decreased heart rate, rebound hypertension, dry mouth, nausea, confusion, dizziness, somnolence, and fever. Hypotension is the adverse event that most frequently requires treatment. The hypotension is usually responsive to intravenous fluids and, if necessary, appropriate parenterally-administered pressor agents. Hypotension was observed more frequently in women and in lower weight patients, but no dose-related response was established. Implantable epidural catheters are associated with a risk of catheter-related infections, including meningitis and/or epidural abscess. The risk depends on the clinical situation and the type of catheter used, but catheter related infections occur in 5% to 20% of patients, depending on the kind of catheter used, catheter placement technique, quality of catheter care, and length of catheter placement. The inadvertent intrathecal administration of clonidine has not been associated with a significantly increased risk of adverse events, but there are inadequate safety and efficacy data to support the use of intrathecal clonidine. Epidural clonidine was compared to placebo in a two week double-blind study of 85 terminal cancer patients with intractable pain receiving epidural morphine. The following adverse events were reported in two or more patients and may be related to administration of either clonidine hydrochloride or morphine.

Incidence of Adverse Events in the Two-Week Trial
 Adverse Events  Clonidine

N = 38

n (%)

 Placebo

N = 47

n (%)

 Total Number of Patients
Who Experienced at Least One
Adverse Event
 37 (97.4)  38 (80.5)
 Hypotension  17 (44.8)  5 (10.6)
 Postural Hypotension  12 (31.6)  0 (0)
 Dry Mouth  5 (13.2)  4 (8.5)
 Nausea  5 (13.2)  10 (21.3)
 Somnolence  5 (13.2)  10 (21.3)
 Dizziness  5 (13.2)  2 (4.3)
 Confusion  5 (13.2)  5 (10.6)
 Vomiting  4 (10.5)  7 (14.9)
 Nausea/Vomiting  3 (7.9)  1 (2.1)
 Sweating  2 (5.3)  0 (0)
 Chest Pain  2 (5.3)  0 (0)
 Hallucination  2 (5.3)  1 (2.1)
 Tinnitus  2 (5.3)  0 (0)
 Constipation  1 (2.6)  2 (4.3)
 Tachycardia  1 (2.6)  2 (4.3)
 Hypoventilation  1 (2.6)  2 (4.3)
An open label long-term extension of the above trial was performed. Thirty-two subjects received epidural clonidine and morphine for up to 94 weeks with a median dosing period of 10 weeks. The following adverse events (and percent incidence) were reported: hypotension/postural hypotension (47%); nausea (13%); anxiety/confusion (38%); somnolence (25%); urinary tract infection (22%); constipation, dyspnea, fever, infection (6% each); asthenia, hyperaesthesia, pain, skin ulcer, and vomiting (5% each). Eighteen percent of subjects discontinued this study as a result of catheter-related problems (infections, accidental dislodging, etc.), and one subject developed meningitis, possibly as a result of a catheter-related infection. In this study, rebound hypertension was not assessed, and ECG and laboratory data were not systematically sought. The following adverse reactions have also been reported with the use of any dosage form of clonidine. In many cases patients were receiving concomitant medication and a causal relationship has not been established: Body as a Whole: Weakness, 10%; fatigue, 4%; headache and withdrawal syndrome, each 1%. Also reported were pallor, a weakly positive Coomb’s test, and increased sensitivity to alcohol. Cardiovascular: Palpitations and tachycardia, and bradycardia, each 0.5%. Syncope, Raynaud’s phenomenon, congestive heart failure, and electrocardiographic abnormalities (i.e., sinus node arrest, functional bradycardia, high degree AV block) have been reported rarely. Rare cases of sinus bradycardia and atrioventricular block have been reported, both with and without the use of concomitant digitalis. Central Nervous System: Nervousness and agitation, 3%; mental depression, 1%; insomnia, 0.5%. Cerebrovascular accidents, other behavioral changes, vivid dreams or nightmares, restlessness, and delirium have been reported rarely. Dermatological: Rash, 1%; pruritus, 0.7%; hives, angioneurotic edema and urticaria, 0.5%; alopecia, 0.2%. Gastrointestinal: Anorexia and malaise, each 1%; mild transient abnormalities in liver function tests, 1%; hepatitis, parotitis, ileus and pseudo obstruction, and abdominal pain, rarely. Genitourinary: Decreased sexual activity and libido, impotence, 3%; nocturia, about 1%; difficulty in micturition, about 0.2%; urinary retention, about 0.1%. Hematologic: Thrombocytopenia, rarely. Metabolic: Weight gain, 0.1%; gynecomastia, 1%; transient elevation of glucose or serum phosphatase, rarely. Musculoskeletal: Muscle or joint pain, about 0.6%; leg cramps, 0.3%. Oro-otolaryngeal: Dryness of the nasal mucosa was rarely reported. Ophthalmological: Dryness of the eyes, burning of the eyes and blurred vision were rarely reported.

OVERDOSAGE


id: e1af2ef6-d8a8-4986-8d49-db06e12a752a
displayName: OVERDOSAGE SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34088-5

Hypertension may develop early and may be followed by hypotension, bradycardia, respiratory depression, hypothermia, drowsiness, decreased or absent reflexes, irritability, and miosis. With large oral overdoses, reversible cardiac conduction defects or arrhythmias, apnea, coma, and seizures have been reported. As little as 100 mcg of oral clonidine has produced signs of toxicity in pediatric patients. There is no specific antidote for clonidine overdosage. Supportive care may include atropine sulfate for bradycardia, intravenous fluids and/or vasopressor agents for hypotension. Hypertension associated with overdosage has been treated with intravenous furosemide, diazoxide or alpha-blocking agents such as phentolamine. Naloxone may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of clonidine-induced respiratory depression, hypotension, and/or coma; blood pressure should be monitored since the administration of naloxone has occasionally resulted in paradoxical hypertension. Tolazoline administration has yielded inconsistent results and is not recommended as first-line therapy. Dialysis is not likely to significantly enhance the elimination of clonidine. The largest overdose reported to date involved a 28-year old white male who ingested 100 mg of clonidine hydrochloride powder. This patient developed hypertension followed by hypotension, bradycardia, apnea, hallucinations, semi-coma, and premature ventricular contractions. The patient fully recovered after intensive treatment. Plasma clonidine levels were 60 ng/mL after 1 hour, 190 ng/mL after 1.5 hours, 370 ng/mL after 2 hours, and 120 ng/mL after 5.5 and 6.5 hours. In mice and rats, the oral LD50 of clonidine is 206 and 465 mg/kg, respectively.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION


id: 48c2cf92-d321-4c7c-bd74-f176f1275c5c
displayName: DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34068-7

The recommended starting dose of clonidine hydrochloride for continuous epidural infusion is 30 mcg/hr. Although dosage may be titrated up or down depending on pain relief and occurrence of adverse events, experience with dosage rates above 40 mcg/hr is limited. Familiarization with the continuous epidural infusion device is essential. Patients receiving epidural clonidine from a continuous infusion device should be closely monitored for the first few days to assess their response. The 500 mcg/mL (0.5 mg/mL) strength product must be diluted prior to use in 0.9% Sodium Chloride for Injection, U.S.P., to a final concentration of 100 mcg/mL:

 Volume of Clonidine


Hydrochloride 500 mcg/mL

 Volume of 0.9% Sodium


Chloride for Injection, U.S.P.

 Resulting Final Clonidine


Hydrochloride Concentration


(100 mcg/mL)

 1 mL  4 mL  500 mcg/5 mL
 2 mL  8 mL  1000 mcg/10 mL
 3 mL  12 mL  1500 mcg/15 mL
 4 mL  16 mL  2000 mcg/20 mL
 5 mL  20 mL  2500 mcg/25 mL
 6 mL  24 mL  3000 mcg/30 mL
 7 mL  28 mL  3500 mcg/35 mL
 8 mL  32 mL  4000 mcg/40 mL
 9 mL  36 mL  4500 mcg/45 mL
 10 mL  40 mL  5000 mcg/50 mL
Renal Impairment:Dosage should be adjusted according to the degree of renal impairment, and patients should be carefully monitored. Since only a minimal amount of clonidine is removed during routine hemodialysis, there is no need to give supplemental clonidine following dialysis. Clonidine hydrochloride mustnotbe used with a preservative. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.

HOW SUPPLIED


id: d269f000-de0b-4acb-9367-6cc54bac86e7
displayName: HOW SUPPLIED SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34069-5

Clonidine hydrochloride injection is available as: 100 mcg/mL solution in 10 mL vials, packaged individually – NDC 0517-0730-01 500 mcg/mL solution in 10 mL vials, packaged individually – NDC 0517-0731-01 Store at 20°to 25°C (68°to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°to 30°C (59°to 86°F) (See USP Controlled Room Temperature). Preservative Free. Discard unused portion. AMERICAN


REGENT, INC.

SHIRLEY, NY 11967 RQ1062-00
Revised: July 2016

PACKAGE LABEL.PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL


id: c3d7c9e1-d0a7-4216-9363-1120c897afa5
displayName: PACKAGE LABEL.PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL
FDA Article Code: 51945-4

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL – 10 mL (1,000 mcg) Label NDC 0517-0730-01 CLONIDINE


HYDROCHLORIDE

INJECTION
1000 mcg/10 mL

(100 mcg/mL) 10 mLSINGLE DOSE VIAL FOR EPIDURAL INJECTION Rx Only AMERICAN


REGENT, INC.

SHIRLEY, NY 11967

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL – 10 mL (5,000 mcg) Label NDC 0517-0731-01 CLONIDINE


HYDROCHLORIDE

INJECTION 5000 mcg/10 mL

(500 mcg/mL) 10 mLSINGLE DOSE VIAL FOR EPIDURAL INJECTION MUST BE DILUTED BEFORE USE Rx Only AMERICAN


REGENT, INC.

SHIRLEY, NY 11967

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL – 10 mL (1,000 mcg) Carton NDC 0517-0730-01 CLONIDINE


HYDROCHLORIDE

INJECTION 1000 mcg/10 mL

(100 mcg/mL) FOR EPIDURAL INJECTION 10 mLSINGLE DOSE VIAL Rx Only AMERICAN


REGENT, INC.

SHIRLEY, NY 11967

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL – 10 mL (5,000 mcg) Carton NDC 0517-0731-01 CLONIDINE


HYDROCHLORIDE

INJECTION 5000 mcg/10 mL

(500 mcg/mL) 10 mLSINGLE DOSE VIAL FOR EPIDURAL INJECTION MUST BE DILUTED BEFORE USE Rx Only AMERICAN


REGENT, INC.

SHIRLEY, NY 11967