Prescription Drug Name:

Clonidine HCl Injection






id: c729a3a8-0edc-426a-91c9-237215162d52
FDA Article Code: 34089-3

Clonidine hydrochloride injection is a centrally-acting solution for use in continuous epidural infusion devices. Clonidine Hydrochloride, USP, is an imidazoline derivative and exists as a mesomeric compound. The chemical names are Benzenamine, 2, 6-dichloro-N-2-imidazolidinylidene monohydrochloride and 2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl) imino]imidazolidine monohydrochloride. The following is the structural formula: Clonidine hydrochloride injection is supplied as a clear, colorless, preservative-free, pyrogen-free, aqueous sterile solution (pH 5 to 7) in 10 mL single-dose vials. Each mL of the 1000 mcg/10 mL (0.1 mg/mL) concentration contains 100 mcg of Clonidine Hydrochloride, USP and 9 mg Sodium Chloride, USP in Water for Injection, USP. Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added for pH adjustment. Each 10 mL vial contains 1mg (1000 mcg) of clonidine hydrochloride. Each mL of the 5000 mcg/10 mL (0.5 mg/mL) concentration contains 500 mcg of Clonidine Hydrochloride, USP and 9 mg Sodium Chloride, USP in Water for Injection, USP. Hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added for pH adjustment. Each 10 mL vial contains 5 mg (5000 mcg) of clonidine hydrochloride.


id: b88f85a8-0c06-47a0-8278-15ac1bfd4a45
FDA Article Code: 34067-9

Clonidine hydrochloride is indicated in combination with opiates for the treatment of severe pain in cancer patients that is not adequately relieved by opioid analgesics alone. Epidural clonidine is more likely to be effective in patients with neuropathic pain than somatic or visceral pain (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Clinical Trials). The safety of this drug product has only been established in a highly selected group of cancer patients, and only after an adequate trial of opioid analgesia. Other use is of unproven safety and is not recommended. In a rare patient, the potential benefits may outweigh the known risks (see WARNINGS).


id: 2085199d-c3ef-447e-a997-6aa932410901
FDA Article Code: 34070-3

Clonidine hydrochloride injection is contraindicated in patients with a history of sensitization or allergic reactions to clonidine. Epidural administration is contraindicated in the presence of an injection site infection, in patients on anticoagulant therapy, and in those with a bleeding diathesis. Administration of clonidine hydrochloride injection above the C4 dermatome is contraindicated since there are no adequate safety data to support such use (see WARNINGS).


id: 89ae5ac2-a1bd-4d5f-89eb-2d450cd7a61d
FDA Article Code: 34084-4

Adverse reactions seen during continuous epidural clonidine infusion are dose-dependent and typical for a compound of this pharmacologic class. The adverse events most frequently reported in the pivotal controlled clinical trial of continuous epidural clonidine administration consisted of hypotension, postural hypotension, decreased heart rate, rebound hypertension, dry mouth, nausea, confusion, dizziness, somnolence, and fever. Hypotension is the adverse event that most frequently requires treatment. The hypotension is usually responsive to intravenous fluids and, if necessary, appropriate parenterally-administered pressor agents. Hypotension was observed more frequently in women and in lower weight patients, but no dose-related response was established. Implantable epidural catheters are associated with a risk of catheter-related infections, including meningitis and/or epidural abscess. The risk depends on the clinical situation and the type of catheter used, but catheter related infections occur in 5%-20% of patients, depending on the kind of catheter used, catheter placement technique, quality of the catheter care, and length of catheter placement. The inadvertent intrathecal administration of clonidine has not been associated with a significantly increased risk of adverse events, but there are inadequate safety and efficacy data to support the use of intrathecal clonidine. Epidural clonidine was compared to placebo in a two week double-blind study of 85 terminal cancer patients with intractable pain receiving epidural morphine. The following adverse events were reported in two or more patients and may be related to administration of either clonidine hydrochloride injection or morphine.

Incidence of Adverse Events in the Two-Week Trial
  Adverse Events   Clonidine

N = 38

n (%)


N = 47

n (%)

  Total Number of Patients Who Experienced at Least One Adverse Events   37 (97.4)   38 (80.5)
  Hypotension   17 (44.8)   5 (10.6)
  Postural Hypotension   12 (31.6)   0 (0)
  Dry Mouth   5 (13.2)   4 ( 8.5)
  Nausea   5 (13.2)   10 (21.3)
  Somnolence   5 (13.2)   10 (21.3)
  Dizziness   5 (13.2)   2 (4.3)
  Confusion   5 (13.2)   5 (10.6)
  Vomiting   4 (10.5)   7 (14.9)
  Nausea/Vomiting   3 (7.9)   1 (2.1)
  Sweating   2 (5.3)   0 (0)
  Chest Pain   2 (5.3)   0 (0)
  Hallucination   2 (5.3)   1 (2.1)
  Tinnitus   2 (5.3)   0 (0)
  Constipation   1 (2.6)   2 (4.3)
  Tachycardia   1 (2.6)   2 (4.3)
  Hypoventilation   1 (2.6)   2 (4.3)
An open label long-term extension of the above trial was performed. Thirty-two subjects received epidural clonidine and morphine for up to 94 weeks with a median dosing period of 10 weeks. The following adverse events (and percent incidence) were reported: hypotension/postural hypotension (47%); nausea (13%); anxiety/confusion (38%); somnolence (25%); urinary tract infection (22%); constipation, dyspnea, fever, infection (6% each); asthenia, hyperaesthesia, pain, skin ulcer, and vomiting (5% each). Eighteen percent of subjects discontinued this study as a result of catheter-related problems (infections, accidental dislodging, etc.), and one subject developed meningitis, possibly as a result of catheter-related infection. In this study, rebound hypertension was not assessed, and ECG and laboratory data not systematically sought. The following adverse reactions have also been reported with the use of any dosage form of clonidine. In many cases patients were receiving concomitant medication and a causal relationship has not been established: Body as a Whole: Weakness, 10%; fatigue, 4%; headache and withdrawal syndrome, each 1%. Also reported were pallor, a weakly positive Coomb’s test, and increased sensitivity to alcohol. Cardiovascular: Palpitations and tachycardia, and bradycardia, each 0.5%. Syncope, Raynaud’s phenomenon, congestive heart failure, and electrocardiographic abnormalities (i.e., sinus node arrest, functional bradycardia, high degree AV block) have been reported rarely. Rare cases of sinus bradycardia and atrioventricular block have been reported, both with and without the use of concomitant digitalis. Central Nervous System: Nervousness and agitation, 3%; mental depression, 1%; insomnia, 0.5%. Cerebrovascular accidents, other behavioral changes, vivid dreams or nightmares, restlessness, and delirium have been reported rarely. Dermatological: Rash, 1%; pruritus, 0.7%; hives, angioneurotic edema and urticaria, 0.5%; alopecia, 0.2%. Gastrointestinal: Anorexia and malaise, each 1%; mild transient abnormalities in liver function tests, 1%; hepatitis, parotitis, ileus and pseudo obstruction, and abdominal pain, rarely. Genitourinary: Decreased sexual activity, impotence, and libido, 3%; nocturia, about 1%; difficulty in micturition, about 0.2%; urinary retention, about 0.1%. Hematologic: Thrombocytopenia, rarely. Metabolic: Weight gain, 0.1%; gynecomastia, 1%; transient elevation of glucose or serum phosphatase, rarely. Musculoskeletal: Muscle or joint pain, about 0.6%; leg cramps, 0.3%. Oro-otolaryngeal: Dryness of the nasal mucosa was rarely reported. Ophthalmological: Dryness of the eyes, burning of the eyes and blurred vision were rarely reported. To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact West-ward Pharmaceutical Corp. at 1-877-233-2001, or the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or


id: 3aa3177f-da39-4813-8b94-63a08e9f57d1
FDA Article Code: 34088-5

Hypertension may develop early and may be followed by hypotension, bradycardia, respiratory depression, hypothermia, drowsiness, decreased or absent reflexes, irritability, and miosis. With large oral overdoses, reversible cardiac conduction defects or arrhythmias, apnea, coma, and seizures have been reported. As little as 100 mcg of oral clonidine has produced signs of toxicity in pediatric patients. There is no specific antidote for clonidine overdosage. Supportive care may include atropine sulfate for bradycardia, intravenous fluids and/or vasopressor agents for hypotension. Hypertension associated with overdosage has been treated with intravenous furosemide, diazoxide or alpha-blocking agents such as phentolamine. Naloxone may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of clonidine-induced respiratory depression, hypotension, and/or coma; blood pressure should be monitored since the administration of naloxone has occasionally resulted in paradoxical hypertension. Tolazoline administration has yielded inconsistent results and is not recommended as first-line therapy. Dialysis is not likely to significantly enhance the elimination of clonidine. The largest overdose reported to date involved a 28-year old white male who ingested 100 mg of clonidine hydrochloride powder. This patient developed hypertension, followed by hypotension, bradycardia, apnea, hallucinations, semi-coma, and premature ventricular contractions. The patient fully recovered after intensive treatment. Plasma clonidine levels were 60 ng/mL after 1 hour, 190 ng/mL after 1.5 hours, 370 ng/mL after 2 hours, and 120 ng/mL after 5.5 and 6.5 hours. In mice and rats, the oral LD50 of clonidine is 206 and 465 mg/kg, respectively.


id: 6455c004-8676-45d7-ac66-b5b2a50f9a13
FDA Article Code: 34068-7

The recommended starting dose of clonidine hydrochloride injection for continuous epidural infusion is 30 mcg/hr. Although dosage may be titrated up or down depending on pain relief and occurrence of adverse events, experience with dosage rates above 40 mcg/hr is limited. Familiarization with the continuous epidural infusion device is essential. Patients receiving epidural clonidine from a continuous infusion device should be closely monitored for the first few days to assess their response. The 500 mcg/mL (0.5mg/mL) strength product must be diluted prior to use in 0.9% Sodium Chloride for Injection, USP, to a final concentration of 100 mcg/mL:

  Volume of Clonidine Hydrochloride Injection

500 mcg/mL

  Volume of 0.9% Sodium Chloride for Injection, USP   Resulting Final Clonidine Hydrochloride Injection Concentration

(100 mcg/mL)

  1 mL   4 mL   500 mcg/5 mL
  2 mL   8 mL   1000 mcg/10 mL
  3 mL   12 mL   1500 mcg/15 mL
  4 mL   16 mL   2000 mcg/20 mL
  5 mL   20 mL   2500 mcg/25 mL
  6 mL   24 mL   3000 mcg/ 30 mL
  7 mL   28 mL   3500 mcg/ 35 mL
  8 mL   32 mL   4000 mcg/40 mL
  9 mL   36 mL   4500 mcg/45 mL
  10 mL   40 mL   5000 mcg/50 mL
Renal Impairment: Dosage should be adjusted according to the degree of renal impairment, and patients should be carefully monitored. Since only a minimal amount of clonidine is removed during routine hemodialysis, there is no need to give supplemental clonidine following dialysis. Clonidine hydrochloride injection must not be used with a preservative. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.


id: 678f30c0-8d73-49c0-b996-d4a4e9dfc47d
FDA Article Code: 34069-5

NDC 0143-9724-01, 100 mcg/mL solution in 10 mL vials, packaged individually.
NDC 0143-9723-01, 500 mcg/mL solution in 10 mL vials, packaged individually.
Store at 25ºC (77ºF); excursions permitted to 15º to 30ºC (59º to 86ºF) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Preservative Free. Discard unused portion. Manufactured by:
Estrada do Rio da Mó, nº 8, 8A e 8B – Fervença
2705 – 906 Terrugem SNT
Distributed by:
465 Industrial Way West
Eatontown, NJ 07724
Revised: March 2011


id: ec16efb2-48ab-4f0c-a3b0-1e7a71ed2266
FDA Article Code: 51945-4

Clonidine HCl Injection
NDC 0143-9724-01
1000 mcg/10 mL


id: 69c6c9f1-70d2-4d54-a6e9-1bc0947a3586
FDA Article Code: 51945-4

Clonidine HCl Injection
NDC 0143-9723-01
5000 mcg/10 mL