displayName: DESCRIPTION SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34089-3
Amoxicillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic, an analog of ampicillin, with a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Chemically, it is (2S,5R,6R)-6-[(R)-(-)-2-amino-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)acetamido]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid trihydrate. The structural formula is:
C16H19N3O5S•3H2O M.W. 419.45
Each capsule, for oral administration, contains 250 mg or 500 mg amoxicillin as the trihydrate.
Inactive Ingredients: CAPSULES-DRUG PRODUCT: magnesium stearate.
CAPSULE SHELL AND PRINT CONSTITUENTS: black iron oxide, D&C Yellow #10, FD&C Red #40, gelatin, propylene glycol, shellac, sodium lauryl sulfate, titanium dioxide, and may also contain D&C Yellow #10 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Blue #1 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Blue #2, FD&C Blue #2 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Red #40 Aluminum Lake, methylparaben, propylparaben, and silicon dioxide. In addition, the 250 mg capsule shell contains D&C Red #28 and FD&C Blue #1 and the 500 mg capsule shell may also contain FD&C Blue #1.
After mixing, each 5 mL of amoxicillin suspension, for oral administration, will contain 125 mg or 250 mg of amoxicillin as the trihydrate.
Inactive Ingredients: SUSPENSION: FD&C Red #40, mixed berry flavoring, silicon dioxide, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, sucrose, and xanthan gum.
Each chewable tablet, for oral administration, contains 125 mg or 250 mg of amoxicillin as the trihydrate.
Inactive Ingredients: CHEWABLE TABLETS: cherry flavor, lactose, magnesium stearate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium citrate, and sucrose.
displayName: CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34090-1
Amoxicillin is stable in the presence of gastric acid and is rapidly absorbed after oral administration. The effect of food on the absorption of amoxicillin from amoxicillin tablets and amoxicillin suspension has been partially investigated. The 400 mg and 875 mg formulations have been studied only when administered at the start of a light meal. However, food effect studies have not been performed with the 200 mg and 500 mg formulations. Amoxicillin diffuses readily into most body tissues and fluids, with the exception of brain and spinal fluid, except when meninges are inflamed. The half-life of amoxicillin is 61.3 minutes. Most of the amoxicillin is excreted unchanged in the urine; its excretion can be delayed by concurrent administration of probenecid. In blood serum, amoxicillin is approximately 20% protein-bound.
Orally administered doses of 250 mg and 500 mg amoxicillin capsules result in average peak blood levels 1 to 2 hours after administration in the range of 3.5 mcg/mL to 5.0 mcg/mL and 5.5 mcg/mL to 7.5 mcg/mL, respectively.
Mean amoxicillin pharmacokinetic parameters from an open, two-part, single-dose crossover bioequivalence study in 27 adults comparing 875 mg of amoxicillin with 875 mg of amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium showed that the 875 mg tablet of amoxicillin produces an AUC0
-∞ of 35.4 ± 8.1 mcg•hr/mL and a Cmax of 13.8 ± 4.1 mcg/mL. Dosing was at the start of a light meal following an overnight fast.
Orally administered doses of amoxicillin suspension, 125 mg/5 mL and 250 mg/5 mL, result in average peak blood levels 1 to 2 hours after administration in the range of 1.5 mcg/mL to 3.0 mcg/mL and 3.5 mcg/mL to 5.0 mcg/mL, respectively.
Oral administration of single doses of 400 mg chewable tablets and 400 mg/5 mL suspension of amoxicillin to 24 adult volunteers yielded comparable pharmacokinetic data:
Detectable serum levels are observed up to 8 hours after an orally administered dose of amoxicillin. Following a 1 gram dose and utilizing a special skin window technique to determine levels of the antibiotic, it was noted that therapeutic levels were found in the interstitial fluid. Approximately 60% of an orally administered dose of amoxicillin is excreted in the urine within 6 to 8 hours.
|| AUC0-∞ (mcg•hr/mL)
|| Cmax (mcg/mL)
|| amoxicillin (± S.D.)
|| amoxicillin (± S.D.)
|400 mg (5 mL of suspension)
|| 17.1 (3.1)
|| 5.92 (1.62)
|400 mg (1 chewable tablet)
|| 17.9 (2.4)
|| 5.18 (1.64)
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
displayName: INDICATIONS & USAGE SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34067-9
Amoxicillin is indicated in the treatment of infections due to susceptible (ONLY β-lactamase-negative) strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed below:
Infections of the ear, nose, and throat – due to Streptococcus spp. (α- and β-hemolytic strains only), S. pneumoniae, Staphylococcus spp., or H. influenzae.
Infections of the genitourinary tract – due to E. coli, P. mirabilis, or E. faecalis.
Infections of the skin and skin structure – due to Streptococcus spp. (α- and β-hemolytic strains only), Staphylococcus spp., or E. coli.
Infections of the lower respiratory tract – due to Streptococcus spp. (α- and β-hemolytic strains only), S. pneumoniae, Staphylococcus spp., or H. influenzae.
Gonorrhea, acute uncomplicated (ano-genital and urethral infections) – due to N. gonorrhoeae (males and females).
H. pylori eradication to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence.
displayName: CONTRAINDICATIONS SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34070-3
A history of allergic reaction to any of the penicillins is a contraindication.
displayName: WARNINGS SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34071-1
SERIOUS AND OCCASIONALLY FATAL HYPERSENSITIVITY (ANAPHYLACTIC) REACTIONS HAVE BEEN REPORTED IN PATIENTS ON PENICILLIN THERAPY. ALTHOUGH ANAPHYLAXIS IS MORE FREQUENT FOLLOWING PARENTERAL THERAPY, IT HAS OCCURRED IN PATIENTS ON ORAL PENICILLINS. THESE REACTIONS ARE MORE LIKELY TO OCCUR IN INDIVIDUALS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN HYPERSENSITIVITY AND/OR A HISTORY OF SENSITIVITY TO MULTIPLE ALLERGENS. THERE HAVE BEEN REPORTS OF INDIVIDUALS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN HYPERSENSITIVITY WHO HAVE EXPERIENCED SEVERE REACTIONS WHEN TREATED WITH CEPHALOSPORINS. BEFORE INITIATING THERAPY WITH AMOXICILLIN, CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE CONCERNING PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO PENICILLINS, CEPHALOSPORINS, OR OTHER ALLERGENS. IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION OCCURS, AMOXICILLIN SHOULD BE DISCONTINUED AND APPROPRIATE THERAPY INSTITUTED. SERIOUS ANAPHYLACTIC REACTIONS REQUIRE IMMEDIATE EMERGENCY TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE. OXYGEN, INTRAVENOUS STEROIDS, AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, INCLUDING INTUBATION, SHOULD ALSO BE ADMINISTERED AS INDICATED.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including amoxicillin capsules, amoxicillin for oral suspension, or amoxicillin tablets (chewable), and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
displayName: ADVERSE REACTIONS SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34084-4
As with other penicillins, it may be expected that untoward reactions will be essentially limited to sensitivity phenomena. They are more likely to occur in individuals who have previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to penicillins and in those with a history of allergy, asthma, hay fever, or urticaria. The following adverse reactions have been reported as associated with the use of penicillins:
Infections and Infestations: Mucocutaneous candidiasis.
Gastrointestinal: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, black hairy tongue, and hemorrhagic/ pseudomembranous colitis.
Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibiotic treatment (see WARNINGS).
Hypersensitivity Reactions: Anaphylaxis (see WARNINGS)
Serum sickness-like reactions, erythematous maculopapular rashes, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, exfoliative dermatitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, hypersensitivity vasculitis and urticaria have been reported.
NOTE: These hypersensitivity reactions may be controlled with antihistamines and, if necessary, systemic corticosteroids. Whenever such reactions occur, amoxicillin should be discontinued unless, in the opinion of the physician, the condition being treated is life-threatening and amenable only to amoxicillin therapy.
Liver: A moderate rise in AST (SGOT) and/or ALT (SGPT) has been noted, but the significance of this finding is unknown. Hepatic dysfunction including cholestatic jaundice, hepatic cholestasis and acute cytolytic hepatitis have been reported.
Renal: Crystalluria has also been reported (see OVERDOSAGE).
Hemic and Lymphatic Systems: Anemia, including hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, eosinophilia, leukopenia, and agranulocytosis have been reported during therapy with penicillins. These reactions are usually reversible on discontinuation of therapy and are believed to be hypersensitivity phenomena.
Central Nervous System: Reversible hyperactivity, agitation, anxiety, insomnia, confusion, convulsions, behavioral changes, and/or dizziness have been reported rarely.
Miscellaneous: Tooth discoloration (brown, yellow, or gray staining) has been rarely reported. Most reports occurred in pediatric patients. Discoloration was reduced or eliminated with brushing or dental cleaning in most cases.
displayName: OVERDOSAGE SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34088-5
In case of overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically, and institute supportive measures as required. If the overdosage is very recent and there is no contraindication, an attempt at emesis or other means of removal of drug from the stomach may be performed. A prospective study of 51 pediatric patients at a poison-control center suggested that overdosages of less than 250 mg/kg of amoxicillin are not associated with significant clinical symptoms and do not require gastric emptying.3
Interstitial nephritis resulting in oliguric renal failure has been reported in a small number of patients after overdosage with amoxicillin.
Crystalluria, in some cases leading to renal failure, has also been reported after amoxicillin overdosage in adult and pediatric patients. In case of overdosage, adequate fluid intake and diuresis should be maintained to reduce the risk of amoxicillin crystalluria.
Renal impairment appears to be reversible with cessation of drug administration. High blood levels may occur more readily in patients with impaired renal function because of decreased renal clearance of amoxicillin. Amoxicillin may be removed from circulation by hemodialysis.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
displayName: DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34068-7
Amoxicillin capsules, chewable tablets, and oral suspensions may be given without regard to meals.
displayName: HOW SUPPLIED SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34069-5
Amoxicillin for oral suspension USP: Each 5 mL of reconstituted suspension, when reconstituted according to directions on the container label, contains 125 mg or 250 mg amoxicillin as the trihydrate.
125 mg/5 mL available in bottles of 80 mL and 150 mL.
250 mg/5 mL available in bottles of 80 mL, 100 mL, and 150 mL.
Store at 20
F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).
displayName: REFERENCES SECTION
FDA Article Code: 34093-5
CLINITEST® is a registered trademark of Miles, Inc.
CLINISTIX® is a registered trademark of Bayer Corporation.
CLOtest® is a registered trademark of Kimberly-Clark Corporation.
- National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically – Fourth Edition; Approved Standard NCCLS Document M7-A4, Vol. 17, No. 2. NCCLS, Wayne, PA, January 1997.
- National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests – Sixth Edition; Approved Standard NCCLS Document M2-A6, Vol. 17, No. 1. NCCLS, Wayne, PA, January 1997.
- Swanson-Biearman B, Dean BS, Lopez G, Krenzelok EP. The effects of penicillin and cephalosporin ingestions in children less than six years of age. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1988;30: 66-67.